Ao Nagas of Nagaland

Photo Courtesy: Imkum Jamir

The Aos of Nagaland is one of the major ethnic groups that reside in Nagaland, a state in the Northeastern part of India. They are renowned for their distinct cultural practices, which revolve around their rich history, folklore, and traditions.

Location and Settlements

The Aos primarily reside in the Mokokchung district of Nagaland, which is situated in the southeastern part of the state. Their settlements are mainly located in the hills, which are characterized by fertile soil, lush vegetation, and a moderate climate. Some of the prominent towns and villages that the Ao people occupy include Mokokchung town, Ungma, Aliba, and Chungtia.

Culture and Traditions

The Aos have a rich and unique culture that is rooted in their history and traditions. One of the most notable aspects of their culture is their attire, which comprises a distinctive red and black striped shawl known as “Sutam”. The shawl is an essential part of the traditional dress, and it symbolizes the community’s identity and unity.

Ao Naga
Photo Courtesy: imosong_imsong (Via Instagram)

Another vital aspect of the culture is their traditional music and dance. They have a wide range of musical instruments, including the bamboo flute, wooden trumpet, and log drum. The dances are characterized by energetic movements and intricate footwork, and they are usually performed during social events such as weddings, festivals, and religious ceremonies.

Festivals and Celebrations of the Ao People

The Aos have several festivals and celebrations that are an essential part of their culture and traditions. One of the most significant events in their calendar is the Moatsu Festival, which is celebrated in May. The festival marks the beginning of the planting season, and it is an occasion for the community to give thanks to their deities for a bountiful harvest. During the festival, the Ao people engage in several activities, including feasting, dancing, and traditional games.

moatsu festival
Photo Courtesy: tannedbrowngirl (Via Instagram)

Another significant festival in Ao’s calendar is the Tsungremong Festival, which is celebrated in August. The festival is an occasion for the community to give thanks to their gods for a good harvest, and it is marked by feasting, traditional dances, and songs.

Religion and Beliefs

The traditional faith of the Ao people is animism, which believes in the existence of both evil and good spirits that require appeasement through rituals and offerings. Lichaba, the creator, is the most revered deity among them.

In 1872, an American missionary named Edwin W. Clark arrived in Nagaland to embark on missionary work. Clark aimed to bring Western culture and language to the Ao people, perceiving it as a means of civilizing them. As a result, the majority of the Ao population has adopted Christianity since the 1800s.


Traditional Ao cuisine is characteristically non-vegetarian food, preferably cooked by boiling instead of frying. Pork meat is the most popular meat and is mostly cooked with fermented bamboo shoots. Food flavors are enhanced through local herbal ingredients and spices. Ao cuisine tends to be spicy in nature.


Chungli and Mongsen are spoken in the majority of the villages, whereas Changki speakers form the minor speakers. It is a Tibeto-Burman language and is known for its complex grammar and tone system, which consists of three distinct tones.

The language has also developed a written form of their language, which uses the Latin script. The language is taught in schools, and efforts are underway to promote its use and preservation.

Social Structure

Ao Naga 1 e1681040693701
Photo Courtesy: manen_aier (Via Instagram)

The Aos have a hierarchical social structure that is based on age and gender. The community is divided into clans, each of which has a distinct name and identity. The clans are further divided into family units, which are headed by the eldest male member of the family.

The community has a system of traditional governance that is based on the concept of “khel”, which refers to a group of people who share a common ancestry and social identity. The khel system is a form of self-governance, where the community is responsible for managing its own affairs and resolving disputes. The khel system is still prevalent in the Ao society, and it serves as an important institution for preserving their cultural heritage.


The Aos have a predominantly agricultural economy, where they cultivate crops such as rice, millet, and maize. The community also engages in animal husbandry, where they rear livestock such as pigs, goats, and chickens.

Ao Farmer
Photo Courtesy: DPRO Mokokchung

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in tourism in Nagaland, and the Ao people have been able to leverage their rich culture and traditions to attract visitors. The community has set up several homestays and guesthouses, where visitors can experience their way of life and participate in their cultural events.

The Aos are a unique and fascinating community with a rich cultural heritage and history. Their distinct way of life and traditions have attracted visitors from around the world, and efforts are underway to promote their culture and preserve their way of life.

Leave a Reply